Sonoma, meet the golden toad, a bright orange salientian – a wide-eyed rascal, slippery to the touch, and cute as a bug’s ear.
First discovered in 1964, the species has only ever been found in a remote, high-altitude region of Costa Rica, where as many as 1,500 have lived in the lower-altitude climes of an elfin cloud forest, an area less than two miles in radius. The glowing little hoppers would spend most of their 10-year lifespans in moist underground burrows, emerging for about a week in the spring to mate in pools of rainwater amid the twisted tree root. Ecologist Martha Crump, who studied them for decades, described them in her book, “In Search of the Golden Frog,” as “dazzling jewels on the forest floor.” The dazzle, however, wouldn’t last.
In 1987, during a particularly parched El Nino season, Crump observed a bitter drying of the rain pools, leaving behind “desiccated eggs… covered in mold.” Of the 43,500 eggs she counted, 29 hatched surviving tadpoles.
In 1988, fewer than a dozen toads emerged; the year after, only one. The golden toad has not been seen since – and bears the ill-fated distinction of being named in 2004 as the first species made extinct by human-caused global climate change.
The untimely demise of the golden toad would seem to have little to do with Sonoma. And yet it has everything to do with Sonoma – and all Sonomas, everywhere.
On Aug. 15, the Sonoma City Council tabled a discussion, and possible action, on the county’s Climate Action 2020, a regional plan to meet state-mandated greenhouse-gas emission reduction goals tied to eligibility for state funding.
The council on that Monday was set to consider the plan, plus eight additional Sonoma-specific GHG-lowering measures council members had previously suggested, as part of the County’s and its nine cities’ effort to achieve a 25 percent percent reduction in GHGs below 1990 levels by 2020. That’s even more ambitious than the state’s requirement to simply meet 1990 levels, as required by AB32. (Another bill in the works, SB32 would require counties to be 40 percent below 1990 levels by 2030.)
Climate Action 2020 is the result of a global-warming-countering effort Sonoma County embarked upon in 2005, when local officials made a very public vow to mitigate GHGs at a time when AB32 was working its way through the legislature and the concept of climate change was shifting in much of the public’s eye from “theory” to “scientifically accepted reality.”
But to borrow from Robert Burns, the best laid plans of mice, men – and city councils – often go awry. That’s what happened when Sebastopol-based environmental watchdogs California River Watch filed a lawsuit earlier that week challenging the County’s Climate Action Plan environmental impact report findings.
River Watch’s challenge comes down to its contention that Climate Action 2020 is willfully ignoring the greenhouse gas emissions created by the county’s fast-growing tourist-industry – including vehicle miles traveled outside the county as a result of tourism (air miles and long-distance trucking, for instance). River Watch alleges the county’s true GHG emissions are far greater than acknowledged in the report, rendering the GHG mitigating measures wholly insufficient to reach the county’s goals.
With the status of Climate Action 2020 up in the air, the Sonoma City Council pulled discussion of its climate priorities from the meeting agenda.